Since prehistory man has been aware of the importance of particle size in producing resources and

Since prehistory man has been aware of the importance of particle size in producing resources and wares with desired properties. Archeological evidence indicates that paints used for cave wall paintings are mixtures of finely pulverized pigmenting materials, predominantly carbon, ochre and hematite. Man came to realize that adding pulverized materials to clay not only improved its workability, but improved the drying process, reduced shrinkage and changed the characteristics of the resulting vessels. There also is evidence of using particles of certain sizes to control porosity. For many centuries, finely divided, calcined lime powder or gypsum mixed with sand was used in plasters and binders. Then, about 2000 years ago, the Romans improved upon the formula by adding volcanic (pozzolanic) ash, which produced a superior hydraulic cement that was used in building many structures that still stand. Today, finely divided particulate materials and objects that incorporate or are produced from these fine particles are everywhere about us. Frequently encountered powders include cement, lime, fertilizer, cosmetic powders, table salt and sugar, detergents, bath and dental powders, coffee ...

Shared e-scooters were supposed to compete with cars, making urban transport and commuting more flexible, faster,

Shared e-scooters were supposed to compete with cars, making urban transport and commuting more flexible, faster, cheaper and greener. Yet, is this assumption valid?  In Brussels, the heart of the European Union, Brussels Mobility surveyed 1,181 scooter users online. They noticed an important difference between scooter-owners and shared scooter-users. In the first category of scooter riders 44% reported to use the scooter as a replacement for the car.  When it comes to users of shared scooters, rather than the ones owning one, one fourth of them says to use the scooter instead of the car, while the majority would use the scooter as a replacement for public transport (72%), walking (45%), or cycling (20%).  The numbers elsewhere in the world are not very far from the ones registered in Brussels. In the US, based on research of scooter company Lime, 30% of its riders reported to use the e-scooter to replace a car ride, while 10% used it as replacement for public transit, and 7 to 8% would not have performed the ride at all.   Research of Portland’s e-scooter pilot program PBOT surveying customers of Bird, Lime and Skip – three scooter giants – shows a similar result. In case of th...

One of our favorite things about Hackerspaces is people tend to spend a lot of time

One of our favorite things about Hackerspaces is people tend to spend a lot of time building tools, or repairing/upgrading older ones. This is a case of the former. The vacuum former. [Adam] wrote in to tell us about this vacuum forming machine which he and few other members built for FizzPOP, a hackerspace in Birmingham, England. The device is used to suck hot sagging plastic around a mold. This is accomplished in two parts, the vacuum table and the heating mechanism to put the sheet of plastic into that sagging state. The vacuum part of these tools has been easy to DIY for a long time. Pegboard makes for a very good table surface, with some type of vacuum motor (usually a shopvac or two) in an enclosure below the surface. This design adheres to that common formula. On the other hand, the heating mechanism is more difficult to solve. The plastic is unwieldy and fragile when hot so a frame is very common. Following the example of commercially available models, the FizzPOP crew built a frame that slides along four vertical rails (envision table legs) extending above the vacuum surface. These legs also hold up the heating element. Often this is a nichrome wire array, but not this ...

Typhoon Hagibis moves off Japan but at least 14 are dead amid flooding and devastation

AT LEAST 14 people were killed and nine others are missing after Typhoon Hagibis slammed into Japan, as rescuers scrambled to reach people trapped by catastrophic flooding. The storm’s “unprecedented” heavy rain triggered deadly landslides and caused rivers to burst their banks. The destruction forced Rugby World Cup organisers to cancel a third match though the key Japan-Scotland clash will go ahead. By this morning, the significantly weakened storm had moved back off land, but serious flooding was reported in several areas, including central Japan’s Nagano, where a burst levee sent water from the Chikuma river gushing into residential neighbourhoods, flooding homes up to the second floor. Japan’s military deployed 27,000 troops to aid rescue operations, including some in helicopters who winched people from the roofs and balconies of flooded homes in Nagano. In Kawagoe, northwest of Tokyo, rescue workers in boats were evacuating elderly people from a retirement home that was heavily flooded in the storm. One woman wearing an orange life vest clutched at rescue workers in hardhats as the boat moved through the muddy floodwaters. Hagibis smashed into the main Japanese island of ...

Pacific Plug & Liner Discovers Possibilities in Perennials

Left to right: Sales Director Steve Lendvay, Marketing Director April Herring, and General Manager Marlon Carrera lead the well-experienced team at Pacific Plug & Liner.Photo by Julia & Lance Photography & Design Located in the fertile Pajaro Valley, Watsonville is home to Pacific Plug & Liner’s (PP&L) 250,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art production facility. Technology and equipment such as rolling Dutch tables, brand new Cherry Creek irrigation booms, Argus environmental controls, a high-pressure fog system, hydronic bottom heating, and a software program that tracks inventory and crop schedules in real time, helps Pacific Plug & Liner consistently deliver high-quality materials to its customers. And if that isn’t enough, year-round sunny weather allows the plants to stay toned and loaded with energy.  PP&L’s website says that while the company’s horticultural heritage dates back to over a century, its passion remains unabated, fueling it to explore ground-breaking solutions for the grower and brokers it does business with. In short, every perennial program at PP&L starts with a simple question — “what does the grower need?”  PP&L is a pere...

Accelerated Synthesis of Uniform High Purity Substances Labmate Online

The LCTR-Series of Laminar Continuous Flow Chemical Reactors from Analytik set a new standard for high yield synthesis of high-purity, uniform substances based upon the Taylor fluid flow principle. These patented design chemical reactors use a jacketed cylindrical vessel with a central, rotating agitation bar to produce Taylor flow mixing along the length of the vessel resulting in 3-times faster mass flow transfer compared to tank type reactors. Reagents are pumped at a controlled rate into the vessel and the reaction efficiency is optimised through specific turbulent mixing before the products are collected at the end of the vessel. The fluid flow in a LCTR system is a uniform Taylor fluid flow without dead-zones, consequently scale-up from 0.02 L to 1000 L can be routinely achieved to produce products with enhanced properties (purity, density, particle distribution, particle size, degree of crystallisation etc.) and at higher yields compared to traditional reactors. Combining powerful agitation with uniform Taylor fluid flow in an LCTR system allows reaction times to be significantly reduced and productivity enhanced. Precise temperature control is achieved using a small diam...

Ultra-thin and smooth transparent electrode for flexible and leakage-free organic light-emitting diodes

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A smooth, ultra-flexible, and transparent electrode was developed from silver nanowires (AgNWs) embedded in a colorless polyimide (cPI) by utilizing an inverted film-processing method. The resulting AgNW-cPI composite electrode had a transparency of >80%, a low sheet resistance of 8 Ω/□, and ultra-smooth surfaces comparable to glass. Leveraging the robust mechanical properties and flexibility of cPI, the thickness of the composite film was reduced to less than 10 μm, which is conducive to extreme flexibility. This film exhibited mechanical durability, for both outward and inward bending tests, up to a bending radius of 30 μm, while maintaining its electrical performance under cyclic bending (bending radius: 500 μm) for 100,000 iterations. Phosphorescent, blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated using these composites as bottom ele...

Racket Man brings hipster yacht rock to Hole Bowl | Music

Thank you for Reading! On your next view you will be asked to log in or create an account to continue reading. Thank you for Reading! On your next view you will be asked to log in to your subscriber account or create an account and subscribepurchase a subscription to continue reading. Print Plus subscribers receive a mailed copy of the News&Guide every week, access to content on our website and e-editions of the News&Guide and Daily. Digital Plus subscribers receive access to our website content and e-editions of the News&Guide and Daily. Digital Monthly subscribers receive access to our website content and e-editions of the News&Guide and Daily for 30 days. Digital Weekly subscribers receive access to our website content and e-editions of the News&Guide and Daily for 7 days. On the cover of their latest single, “Front Seat,” the members of the Cleveland band Racket Man pose in retro monochromatic outfits. Bassist Chris Seaman sports a cap that reads “high life,” keyboardist Tyler Elwing squats in a triple-XL yellow T-shirt with no pants on, and guitarist Tommy Marx has the earnest look of a car mechanic circa 1985 with his dark blue coveralls, mullet and mu...